Albert Barnes : “All that is necessary to say further on this point is, that on the supposition that it was the design of the Spirit of inspiration in the passage before us to refer to the followers of Muhammed, the image of the locusts was that which would be naturally selected. There was no other one so appropriate and so striking; no one that would so naturally designate the country of Arabia.”
Jonathan Edwards : “First, the Saracens, who were some of his followers, and were a people of the country of Arabia, where Mahomet lived, about the year 700, began dread- fully to waste the Roman empire. They conquered a great many countries belonging to the empire, and continued their victories for a long time. These are supposed to be meant by the locusts that we read of in the ninth chapter of Revelation.”
Adam Clarke : “Locusts – Vast hordes of military troops: the description which follows certainly agrees better with the Saracens than with any other people or nation, but may also apply to the Romans.”
Thomas Coke : “The Arabians likewise are properly compared to locusts, not only because numerous armies frequently are so; but because swarms of locusts often arise from Arabia. In the plagues of Egypt, to which constant allusion is made in these trumpets, the locusts are brought by an east wind (Exodus 10:13), that is, from Arabia, which lay eastward of Egypt; and in the Book of Judges, the people of Arabia are compared to locusts or grasshoppers for multitude; for, in the original, the word for both is the same. As the natural locusts are bred in pits and holes of the earth, so these mystical locusts are truly infernal, and proceed with the smoke from the bottomless pit.”
John Gill : “The eastern locusts are the Saracens, and who are chiefly designed; and who were to harass and distress the eastern empire, and prepare for its ruin, which is brought on under the next trumpet by the Turks. These are fitly signified by locusts, because the locusts generally come out of the eastern parts: it was an east wind which brought the plague of locusts into Egypt, Exodus 10:13; and the children of the east, the Arabians, are compared to grasshoppers, or locusts, in Judges 7:12; and one of the names of a locust is “Arbeh”, not much unlike in sound to an Arab. To which may be added, that it is a tradition of the Arabians, that there fell locusts into the hands of Mahomet, on whose backs and wings were written these words: “we are the army of the most high God; we are the ninety and nine eggs, and if the hundred should be made perfect, we should consume the whole world, and whatever is in it.” And it was a law established by Mahomet, ye shall not kill the locusts, for they are the army of the most high God”
Matthew Poole : “I therefore rather agree with the learned and judicious Mr. Mede, with whom I also find John Napier and others agreeing, that by these locusts are meant the Turks and Saracens. 1. Their time agreeth; for they first appeared formidably to the world about the year 620. 2. They were always very numerous. 3. They came the locusts’ road, from Arabia, and the eastern parts. The Arabians (which the Saracens are) are called the children of the east, and said to be like grasshoppers for multitude.”
Thomas Newton : “At the sounding of the fifth trumpet (ver. 1 3.) a star fallen from heaven, meaning the wicked impostor Mohammed, opened the bottomless pit, and there arose a smoke out of the pit, and the sun and the air were darkened by it ; that is, a false religion was set up, which filled the world with darkness and error; and swarms of Saracen or Arabian locusts overspread the earth. A false prophet is very fitly typified by a blazing star or meteor. The Arabians likewise are properly compared to locusts, not only because numerous armies frequently are so, but also because swarms of locusts often arise from Arabia : and also because in the plagues of Egypt, to which constant allusion is made in these trumpets, the locusts, (Exod. x. 13.) are brought by an east-wind, that is, from Arabia, which lay eastward of Egypt: and also because in the book of Judges (vii. 12.) the people of Arabia are compared to locusts or grasshoppers for multitude, for in the original the word for both is the same. As the natural locusts l are bred in pits and holes of the earth, so these mystical locusts are truly infernal, and proceed with the smoke from the bottomless pit. It is too a remarkable coincidence, that at this time the sun and the air were really darkened. For we learn from an eminent Arabian historian, that ” in the seventeenth year of Heraclius half the body of the sun was eclipsed, and this defect continued from the former Tisrin to Haziran, (that is, from October to June) so that only a little of its light appeared.” The seventeenth year of Heraclius coincides with the year of Christ 626, and with the fifth year of the Hegira ; and at this time Mohammed was training and exercising his followers in depredations at home, to fit and prepare them for greater conquests abroad.”
H. Grattan Guinness : “The next two trumpets give events in the East instead of the West, the fifth predicting the Saracenic con- quests of the seventh and eighth centuries (symbolized as the ravages of an army of locusts), and the sixth the Turkish invasions of eastern Europe, which extended from the middle of the eleventh century to the middle of the fifteenth. These, and the intolerable misery they occasioned to the Greek Churches of the East, are symbolized under the sixth trumpet by the career of the Euphratean horsemen in the ninth chapter of the book. This vision brings down the prophetic history to the fall of Constantinople, the capital of the eastern empire of Rome, before the Turks in A.D. 1453; and the remainder of the fifteenth century seems covered in the prophecy by the statement that ” the rest of the men who were not killed by these plagues, yet repented not of the works of their hands, that they should not worship devils, and idols of gold, and silver, and brass, and stone, and wood.” This description of continued obdurate and inveterate apostasy and idolatry applies both to eastern and western Christendom at that time.”
E. B. Elliott : “Next I shall expect that he will take up the first or scorpion-locust Woe; and distinctly encounter my main argument, from the asserted fact of all the characteristics of that symbol answering to the Mahomedan Saracens of the seventh century, so as they can be shewn to answer to no other nation that ever existed on the face of the earth…. First, and chiefly, the locust, the ground- work of the symbol, is peculiarly Arabic. So the sacred history of ancient times informs us. ” It was the east wind,” it says, “which brought the locusts” on Egypt from which the inference arises, that the country they issued from must have been that which, in all its extent, lies east of Egypt, that is Arabia. Such too, in modern times, is the testimony of Volney ; ” the most judicious,” as Gibbon calls him, “of Syrian travelers.” “The inhabitants of Syria,” he observes, ” have remarked that locusts come constantly from the desert of Arabia.”… Again, as of the locust, so of the scorpion, the native locality was by the Jews considered the Arabian desert. Witness Moses’ own words to the Israelites, on emerging from it, after forty years wandering ; ” that great and terrible wilderness wherein were fiery serpents and scorpions.” — And who knows not, if facts so notorious be worth mentioning, that it is Arabia, still Arabia, that is regarded by naturalists as the original country of the horse*…”
Thomas Scott : “There can scarcely remain a doubt, in the mind of an attentive enquirer, who has competent information on the subject, that these verses predict the rise and progress of Mohammed and his successors, as ruling over the Arabians or Saracens.”
Joseph Mede : “The first woe trumpet is long since passed. It sent forth those horrid troops of locusts, issuing from the smoke of the Tartarean abyss, now opened by the work of Satan, to devastate the globe; that is, the Saracens, or Arabs, (a nation as populous and numerous as locusts), were excited to the destruction of so many nations, by the astonishing false prophecy of Mohammed.”
Christopher Wordsworth : “This Vision of Locusts, is, I believe, rightly interpreted as representing the rise and progress of the Arch-Impostor of Arabia (A.D. 611); and the fierce retribution which was executed by God through him on degenerate and idolatrous nations. Mahometanism was, and is, a scourge on the world for its neglect and abuse of Christianity. It was a child of hell; but it avenged the cause of Heaven.”
Alexander McLeod (or M’Leod) : “Truth is light. Error is darkness. A system of misrepresentation and falsehood, originating from the father of lies, and deceiver of nations, is the smoke of the pit by which the sun and the air were darkened. Such are the doctrines of the Koran…. The symbolical locusts under consideration, issued from the figurative smoke, that is, were excited to their destructive excursions by hellish delusions. We are, therefore, to look for the fulfillment of this prophecy, to some fierce and barbarous people, who appear after the close of the 6th century, in the eastern empire, influenced to cruel warfare in immense multitudes, under the auspices of a system of false doctrines contrived by the instrumentality of some “fallen star”. The history of Arabia, the natural seat of the locusts, furnishes the interpretation of the prophecy in the conduct of the Saracens.”
Louis Gaussen : “These three woe trumpets are described so fully and exactly, that it is one of the best understood parts of the Apocalypse, and that almost all interpreters are agreed in recognizing, at least, in the fifth, the trumpet of the Saracens, and in the sixth that of the Turks.—Observe the beautiful accuracy of the symbols of the fifth trumpet, which point out Arabia, its clouds of fierce horsemen, its diabolical fanaticism, and its vast ravages!—A cruel and unnatural religion, “a smoke arising out of the bottomless pit” has given them birth; they fall upon Palestine, Syria, Egypt, Africa, Persia, Asia Minor, like those clouds of devouring locusts, which each year are brought from Arabia by the strong winds of the desert, and which, after hiding the light of the sun, carry desolation alternately into all the countries of the East. The description is so accurate, that one seems to see these terrible horsemen of the desert, with their “long hair like women’s,” floating on the shoulders, their “faces as those of men,” bearded and moustached (the Goths also let their hair grow, but, contrary to the Arabs, shaved their faces, except perhaps the Lombards; I inadvertently spoke of their beards in a former lesson, I ought to have remembered the passage where Jerome describes them, “with their women’s face, pursuing sword in hand the bearded Romans;”) the national diadem on their heads, their cuirasses, or coats of mail, celebrated in history, their long teeth of dazzling “whiteness like those of jackals or ounces,” says Chateaubriand; and especially their fierce fanaticism, and the deadly poison which they left upon their tracks. How can we mistake these children of Mahomet, when everything is described, even to the duration of their invasion, and of their devastating progress—150 prophetic days, that is to say 150 years, from the year 612, when their false prophet publishes his mission, to the year 762, when these devouring locusts settle themselves, lay their eggs, lose their wings, and build upon the Tigris, Bagdad, their city of peace, as they have called it ?”
William Cunninghame : “It will scarcely be disputed by those who have given a close attention to the analogies of the language of symbols, that the universal prevalence of the false doctrines [within professing Christianity inside the bounds of both the Western and Eastern Roman empires], which are described in the foregoing extracts, might be fitly symbolized by a black smoke rising out of the pit of the abyss, or the infernal regions…. An army of locusts, in the language of symbols, signifies an army of hostile invaders. The locusts mentioned in the prophecy of Joel were so understood by the ancient Jewish interpreters, who were well qualified to judge of the meaning of their own symbols. In the present instance, no doubt is left on the subject, as we are informed afterwards, that “the shapes of the locusts were like unto horses prepared unto battle”… The whole of this highly hieroglyphical description is exactly applicable to the rise of the Mahommedan religion and power; and it is very remarkable that Mr. Gibbon, in describing these events, makes use of language, with respect to the state of the Christian Church, at the time when Mahomet appeared, which might almost be supposed to have been borrowed from the Apocalypse. “The Christians of the seventh century had insensibly relapsed into a semblance of paganism; their public and private vows were addressed to the relics and images that disgraced the temples of the east: The throne of the Almighty was darkened by a crowd of martyrs, and saints, and angels, the objects of popular veneration ; and the Collyridian heretics, who flourished in the fruitful soil of Arabia, invested the Virgin with the name and honours of a goddess.”… It may be affirmed, almost without the danger of dispute, that Mahomet could not have succeeded in his imposture in an age of light; and that if superstition and gross darkness had not previously overspread Christendom, either his impious fraud had not been attempted, or had been destroyed in embryo. It is, therefore, quite agreeable to the nature of the symbolical language and style, that the army of locusts should be represented as issuing out of the black smoke which had previously pervaded the symbolical atmosphere.”
Joseph Benson : “All these circumstances are suitable to the character of the Arabians, the history of this period, and to the particulars of this prophecy.”
Thomas Goodwin : “In c. ix. 4, when these Saracen-locusts, under their ring-leader Mahomet, were first set loose, and had their commission, then comes in this clause of exception, “That they should hurt only those men that were not sealed,” which privilege of sealing, then and there only mentioned, argues the chief intent and accomplishment of their sealing to have taken place under the blasts of these locusts, though in the vision it comes in here beforehand.”
Charles Daubuz: “Locusts fly in such prodigious numbers, as that they form a great cloud, and darken the sky, and then falling upon the earth, make a most terrible havock of all the fruits thereof; and so are a proper symbol to signify and army of enemies coming in vast multitudes to make an excursion, in order to plunder and destroy a country: and therefore very properly represent here the Arabians or Saracens…”
Pierre Jurieu : “The sequel of the history, and the characters of this prophecy, persuade me, that by the locusts we are to understand the Arabians (who made no figure in history until the year 622, when, under their new name of Saracens, they followed Mahomet, as their prophet and general, and made considerable conquests); for after the great decline, or almost total eclipse of the Imperial dignity in Italy, the greatest event which next happened (with respect to the fourth monarchy and to religion) was the Arabians, who seemed to be raised up by Providence (for one purpose at least) to harass and torment the Western Roman empire, which was already very much disjointed or unhinged; but more especially for the punishment and degradation of the Eastern Empire at Constantinople. We are now to see, how well the words of the prophecy agree with those modern-named people, the Saracens.”
James Bicheno : “I shall only observe, that by these locusts we are to understand the Saracens, the disciples of Mahomet, who, for so many years, were the scourge of the Greek and Latin churches, Asia and Europe.“
Robert Fleming : “The locusts that came out of this smoke were the Saracens, that followed Mahomet, who compiled the model of his religion, by the help of Jews and Christian heretics, especially of Sergius a Nestorian monk, whom the Arabian and Turkish writers call Bahira. These Arabian locusts, (whose Hegyra is dated from Mahomet’s flight from Mecca, an. dom. 622, a little after the Pope got the title of universal bishop, an. dom. 606,) did in a little time so increase, that they conquered or over-run a great many countries in a very little time.“
James Frere : “The fifth, or first woe trumpet, begins with the irruption of the Saracens into the territories of the eastern Roman empire, in 632, the figure of locusts being used to designate armies from the east, or country of locusts. The sting in the tail is the emblem of false doctrine, “the prophet that speaketh lies, he is the tail”…”
Edward Bickersteth : “Sounding of the fifth trumpet : Locust, or Saracen woe, Revelation 9:3”
John Cumming : “The birth-place of these locust propagandists must be the East; we read in Exodus, “the east wind brought locusts” into Egypt. Volney says, “The locusts come from the deserts of Arabia,” and Arbe, the Hebrew [word] for an Arab, is almost the same as arba, the Hebrew [word] for a locust. Hence, as in Judges vi. 5, “they come as arba, or locusts.” The scorpion, in the next place, is always traced in Scripture to Arabia. Moses says, “the wilderness, where fiery serpents and scorpions are.” The horse, I need not say, is popularly an Arab symbol. Arabia is his home. We read of the Arab steed, as the model of a horse. The whole zoology of the symbol is strictly Arab.“
George Stanley Faber : “As that devastating insect the locust was brought by the east wind out of Arabia, to constitute one of the plagues of Egypt; so a swarm of locusts is employed by the prophet, with the strictest hieroglyphical decorum, to represent those innumerable hosts of destructive Saracens, which, under the guidance of Mohammed and his successors, alighted upon the apocalyptic earth or the territorial Roman Empire.”
Drue Cressener : “The Saracen troubles must then have been the first woe [in other words: the fifth trumpet]”
David Steele : “Locusts constituted one of the plagues of Egypt, and they are the emblem of a destroying army. (Exod. x. 14-19; Joel i. 4-6.) And this is their import here. They represent the deluded and destructive followers of Mahomet, who in vast multitudes laid waste the nations of western Asia, southern Europe, and northern Africa. The Saracens, originating in Arabia, the national locality of the literal locusts, in great multitudes like clouds, laid waste the fairest and most populous portions of the earth for a succession of ages. These symbolic locusts have also the property of scorpions, a poisonous reptile, resembling in some degree a lizard combined with a lobster, armed with a sting in the end of its tail. Wicked and impenitent men are compared to scorpions. (Ezek. ii. 6.)”
* Wikipedia : “With a distinctive head shape and high tail carriage, the Arabian is one of the most easily recognizable horse breeds in the world. IT IS ALSO ONE OF THE OLDEST BREEDS, with archaeological evidence of horses that resemble modern Arabians dating back 4,500 years.”
My comment : is it just a coincidence that the same prophecy would contain the symbols of horses, locusts** and scorpions which together fittingly point to Arabia? The Book of Revelation was written hundreds of years before the 7th century rise of Islam. Was there anything in the 1st century AD when the Roman empire was dominant to suggest that Arabia would become a great world power through the spread of a new religion? No one could have foreseen that except by revelation of God.
** NASA : “Rain falling on the arid soil of the Arabian Peninsula brings a brush of green to the landscape. It also provides the key ingredient in initiating an outbreak of desert locusts.”
Though John Wesley , Matthew Henry and Johann Bengel did not believe the locusts at the beginning of Revelation chapter 9 specifically referred to Islam they all believed that the latter part of the same chapter pointed to Islam (Wesley and Bengel : Saracens, Henry : Turks).
Isaac Newton, the famed scientist, also held the same view. He wrote the following concerning Revelation chapter 9 : “This plague began with the opening of the bottomless pit, which denotes the letting out of a false religion: the smoke which came out of the pit, signifying the multitude which embraced that religion; and the locusts which came out of the smoke, the armies which came out of that multitude. This pit was opened, to let out smoke and locusts into the regions of the four monarchies, or some of them. The King of these locusts was the Angel of the bottomless pit, being chief governor as well in religious as civil affairs, such as was the Caliph of the Saracens. Swarms of locusts often arise in Arabia and from thence infest the neighbouring nations: and so are a very fit type of the numerous armies of Arabians invading the Romans.”
Francis Nigel Lee in the following message does give a list of Bible teachers who did interpret the prophecy of chapter 9 as pointing to the historic rise of Islam :
Though William Kelly of the Plymouth Brethren believed there was still a second fulfillment to come of the fifth trumpet he did agree with the application made by past Protestants of the locust symbol to Muslim Arabs… at least as a first fulfillment of the prophecy according to his view of the Book of Revelation : “For my own part, I do not doubt that the common application of the locusts to the Saracens and of the Euphratean horsemen to the Turks is well founded.”
Before I end this post I want to ask a few questions and I also want to talk about the historical fact of the bodily resurrection of Jesus Christ:
1 – QUESTIONS TO MOSLEMS:
a) The Quran teaches that Allah gave the Bible (Judeo-Christian Scriptures) according to Sura 2:136 and Sura 3:65 of the Quran for example. In the Torah, it says that new revelation cannot contradict previous revelation (Deuteronomy 13:1-5). The Gospels testify that Jesus was crucified while the Quran denies this (Sura 4:157). Even the Jewish Old Testament predicted the sufferings of the Messiah (Psalm 22, Isaiah chapter 53, Daniel chapter 9) hundreds of years before the crucifixion of Jesus. There are other examples where the Quran (supposedly a new revelation from God) contradicts the Judeo-Christian Bible. How then in light of these facts could Mohammed be considered another prophet of the God of the Bible? How could it be believed that the Allah of the Quran and the God of the Judeo-Christian Bible are the same being? How can the Quran be trusted? Was Allah unable to make sure that the new revelations of the Quran would not contradict previous revelations?
b) The Quran calls the Bible the “Word of God” (Sura 2:75). The Quran also teaches that the words of Allah cannot be altered (Sura 10:64). If the Bible has supposedly been corrupted by Jews and Christians as Moslems claim then does that not mean necessarily that the Allah of the Quran was not powerful enough to prevent his words being altered? If the Bible has not been corrupted and if the Quran contradicts the Bible then how can the Quran still be true? If the claim that the Bible was corrupted is true then that creates a problem for the reliability of the Quran because the same Allah who could not prevent the Bible from being corrupted (if the Moslem claim is true) is just as likely to not be able to prevent the Quran from being corrupted.
c) If the Allah of the Quran is unknowable then how can one know this?
d) God is holy and just and He must punish sin. How can you erase all of your past evil works? How can you have perfect and lasting peace with Allah? How can you have peace in your conscience knowing that you have done evil works that you cannot erase? No one can pay off a debt with money that is already owed. Good works are already required of us by God so we cannot erase sins with what we already owe God (good works).
e) If the theory that Judas Iscariot was crucified instead of Jesus is true then does not that imply that the Allah of the Quran willingly deceived the disciples of one of his prophets (Jesus)? Isn’t that self-contradictory behavior? Could you trust a god who lied to the sincere believers of one of his prophets? How do you know that the Allah of the Quran is not deceiving you right now? Would Judas (a traitor) on the cross have cried out the following words: “Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.” (Luke 23:34)?
2 – THE HISTORICAL FACT OF THE BODILY RESURRECTION OF JESUS CHRIST
The historical event of the bodily resurrection of Jesus Christ is a strong proof of the deity of Christ. All of the counter-theories (e.g. Christ survived the crucifixion, the apostles stole His body) that have been brought forth in the past to explain away the resurrection are not able to give a coherent answer which can plausibly explain everything that happened after the resurrection (e.g. appearances of Christ, rapid spread of the Gospel).
If the resurrection was just a carefully crafted lie invented by the apostles then how can anyone explain that the apostles (and disciples of the centuries preceding the Constantinian corruption of the Church) chose to die atrociously (e.g. devoured by lions, burned, crucified) rather than renounce their faith in Jesus Christ? Who would want to die ignominiously and very painfully for something they know is a lie?
If no resurrection happened then how does one explain the appearances of Jesus Christ before many witnesses at the same time (e.g. over 500 witnesses at the same time – see 1st Corinthians chapter 15) and at different settings during the 40 days after His resurrection? Not only the apostles saw Jesus but they also touched Him and saw Him eat food. If those appearances of Christ were merely “collective hallucinations” (as if it were possible that many different people could simultaneously hallucinate about the same thing at the same time!) then how does one explain that the “hallucinations” ceased suddenly after 40 days?
How does one explain the conversion of Saul of Tarsus (the apostle Paul before his conversion) who was a fierce persecutor of the early apostolic Church?
How does one explain away all of the many lives transformed (i.e. ex-alcoholics, ex-junkies, ex-prostitutes, ex-thieves, ex-occultists, etc…) throughout the centuries, in different cultures and on different continents by the Gospel message which is founded on the resurrection of Christ if Christ did not rise from the dead but was merely a man?
The empty tomb was never contested by the Jewish enemies of the Church in the first century because their accusation that the apostles had stolen the body of Christ presupposes an empty tomb. If the Romans and the Jewish enemies of the Church had wanted to destroy Christianity they needed only to present the dead body of Christ publicly to the people of Jerusalem if they had had it in their possession. If the apostles had truly stolen the body then one would have to believe the testimony of the Roman soldiers guarding the tomb of Christ who had to be asleep at the time of the supposed “theft”. How could someone who was asleep be a good eyewitness when his eyes were shut?!
Can someone seriously believe that after all the torture Christ endured over many hours He survived it all and had enough strength to remove the large stone in front of the tomb’s door and then overpower many Roman soldiers?
Even a counter-theory widely spread amongst Moslems that Jesus had not really been crucified but had been secretly delivered by the Allah of the Quran (who is NOT the triune God of the Bible who saves sinners by grace) and which teaches that Judas Iscariot or someone else, who resembled Jesus or had been made by Allah to resemble Jesus (I forget the exact details of this theory), had been crucified instead of Jesus is even more problematic for the people who promote it than other counter-theories:
First of all, the Quran does not EXPLICITLY teach this “substitution” theory. This theory is based upon a questionable interpretation of an obscure verse of the Quran.
Secondly, in Sura 19 of the Quran, Jesus predicted His death.
Thirdly, Judas Iscariot (or someone else crucified in Christ’s place) would have made a great effort to tell the public that they were crucifying the wrong person. Who would want to be crucified for 3 hours?! Think about it! I would have screamed at the top of my lungs!
Fourthly, the mother of Jesus being near the foot of the Cross would have surely discovered that it wasn’t Jesus being crucified but another person. That person had spoken to the mother of Jesus and told her the following words which Judas Iscariot (or another person) would not have pronounced: “Woman, behold thy son!” (John 19:26) The mother of Jesus would have surely recognized the face and voice of her son. Let us not forget that the enemies of Christ who are also near the Cross had a great interest in Jesus being the one crucified and not some other person. The apostle John, who knew Christ more intimately than the other disciples, was also near the foot of Cross and had heard the voice and seen the face of the person being crucified. Were they all simultaneously fooled? Did Allah allow Mary the mother of Jesus to be fooled? That’s what one needs to believe prior to believing this “substitution” theory.
Fifthly, Joseph of Arimathaea, one of the disciples of Jesus, took time to cover the body of Jesus with linen clothes. Shouldn’t he have been able to recognize Jesus up close? Again, for the theory to be true, one must believe that the Allah of the Quran deceived Joseph of Arimathea, a disciple of one of his prophets (Jesus)?
Sixthly, if it’s true that the Allah of the Quran kept Jesus from being crucified then it means that Allah DECEIVED the disciples of one of his prophets (Jesus) if Islam is true!!! It also means that Jesus Himself would have participated in this DECEPTION if the theory was true. Why would the Allah of the Quran deceive followers of one of his prophets? Isn’t that incoherent behaviour? If this “substitution” theory is true then how can one know with certainty that the Allah of the Quran has not also deceived the disciples of his prophet Mohammed in the past? How could I trust such a god who has already deceived followers of his own prophet if Islam is true? If this theory is true then why did the god of Islam wait almost 6 centuries to reveal this so-called “work of deception” when this same “work of deception” led men to believe Jesus Christ is God which Islam strongly and ferociously denies? If this theory is true then Christianity was a result of an “imposture” brought about by the actions of the Allah of the Quran and it would imply that the Allah of the Quran acted incompetently, having by his actions given birth to a rival religion.
Seventhly, this theory offers no answer to the appearances of Jesus to His disciples after the resurrection and it does not explain the empty tomb.
Eighthly, some of the words pronounced by the person being crucified would not have been pronounced by the traitor Judas Iscariot (or anyone else for that matter): “Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit.” (Luke 23:46), “Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise.” (Luke 23:43) and “Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.” (Luke 23:34)
Ninthly, the death of Jesus was prophesied by Old Testament prophets (i.e. Isaiah chapter 53, Daniel chapter 9, Zechariah chapter 12, Psalm 22).
Tenthly, very early New Testament manuscripts mention the death of Jesus so the whole theory that the Scriptures were tampered with in order to teach the death or resurrection of Jesus is bogus.
Eleventhly, non-Christian historians such as Josephus (1st century AD) and Tacitus mention the death of Jesus.
Twelfthly, the Jews who are enemies of Jesus and Christianity mention the death of Jesus in the Talmud despite the fact that they would have a great interest in denying the existence of Jesus, His crucifixion and their participation in His crucifixion because of all the persecution the Jews have faced throughout the centuries mainly by Roman Catholics.